The basic core primitives of Akkatecture are:

A ValueObject is an immutable type that is distinguishable only by the state of its properties. That is, unlike an Entity, which has a unique identifier and remains distinct even if its properties are otherwise identical, two ValueObjects with the exact same properties can be considered equal. An Entity always has a globally unique identifier, so if two entities have the same identity, they are the same entity, regardless of their member values. Akkatecture uses these primitives all over the project and you are highly encouraged to use them as well so that your domain design is highly expressive, readable, and reasonable.

Value Objects

The SingleValueObject<> generic primitive provides you with the necessary class overrides you need to have, so that they can be compared on the basis of their collective state. If all of their component properties are equal to one another, then two ValueObjects can be said to be equal. Feel free to derive from this class:

public class AccountNumber : SingleValueObject<string>
  public AccountNumber(string value)
    : base(value)
      //do some model validation, null checks etc.

It is recommended to use value as the parameter name, if you intend to serialize value objects. With Akkatecture's built in serialization converters.


The Identity<> value object provides generic functionality to create and validate the identities of e.g. aggregate roots. Its basically a wrapper around a Guid.

public class AccountId : Identity<AccountId>
  public AccountId(string value)
    : base(value)
  1. The identity follow the form {class without "Id"}-{guid} e.g. account-c93fdb8c-5c9a-4134-bbcd-87c0644ca34f for the above AccountId example.

  2. The internal Guid can be generated using one of the following methods/properties. Note that you can access the Guid factories directly by accessing the static methods on the GuidFactories class.

  3. New: Uses the standard Guid.NewGuid().

  4. NewDeterministic(...): Creates a name-based Guid using the algorithm from RFC 4122 §4.3, which allows identities to be generated based on known data, e.g. an e-mail, i.e., it always returns the same identity for the same arguments.

  5. NewComb(): Creates a sequential Guid that can be used to e.g. avoid database fragmentation.

  6. A string can be tested to see if its a valid identity using the static bool IsValid(string) method.

  7. Any validation errors can be gathered using the static IEnumerable<string> Validate(string) method.

Its very important to name the constructor argument value as it is significant when the identity type is deserialized.

Here's some examples on we can use our newly created AccountId

// Uses the default Guid.NewGuid()
var accountId = AccountId.New
// Create a namespace, put this in a constant somewhere
var emailNamespace = Guid.Parse("769077C6-F84D-46E3-AD2E-828A576AAAF3");

// Creates an identity with the value "account-9181a444-af25-567e-a866-c263b6f6119a",
// useful to use when you want to create Id's
// deterministically from other real world "identifiers",
// especially in distributed situations
var accountId = AccountId.NewDeterministic(emailNamespace, "[email protected]");
// Creates a new identity every time, but an identity when used in e.g.
// database indexes, minimizes fragmentation
var accountId = AccountId.NewComb()

You are not forced to use the Identity<> implementation from Akkatecture. If you make your own Identity that implements IIdentity then it can still plug into all of the Akkatecture constructs as variants.


An Entity is an object that has some intrinsic identity, apart from the rest of its state. Even if its properties are the same as another instance of the same type, it remains distinct because of its unique identity. The Entity<> In Akkatecture is itself a ValueObject however it implements the IEntity<Identity> interface, which requires it to have a member called Identity Id. Now you can see the relationship between Entity<>, SingleValueObject<>, and Identity<>. A sample Entity running onwards from the Account example above, could be:

public class Account : Entity<AccountId>
  public AccountNumber AccountNumber {get;}

  public Account(
    AccountId entityId,
    AccountNumber accountNumber)
    : base(entityId)
      //do some model validation, null checks etc.
      AccountNumber = accountNumber;

As you can see Account has an AccountId entity identifier, and is itself an value object because Entity<> inherits from SingleValueObject<>, and has a ValueObject member AccountNumber.

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