Scheduled Jobs

Akkatecture ships with a model for executing commands known as jobs. These jobs are messages that are persisted and (within reasonable tolerances) will be executed in the future. Jobs are not supposed to be used as an intermediary in situations where real time responsiveness is needed. Jobs are useful for scheduling processes that can tolerate high latencies (eg minutes). Scheduled jobs are suitable for triggering processes at some arbitrary point in time in the future, like sending non-business critical emails, or scheduling backups.

This is a highly experimental feature at this point as should be regarded as such. The API surface may change drastically as things evolve. Feel free to submit your comments here. All suggestions will be taken seriously.


Jobs are just like commands, however unlike commands, they do not target any specific domain entity. Jobs are just messages which are likely to be persisted and scheduled to be published in the future. Since they get persisted, these messages are regarded as invariant, one must be sure to not alter the message structure/schema in code since they will need to be deserialized later, in the same way that aggregate events are invariant.

For the purposes of demonstration let's say that we have an EmailCouponJob, it is a job that models the need to send out coupon codes to customers. It might look something like this:

public class EmailCouponJob : IJob
    public string Address { get; }
    public CouponCode Code { get; }
    public EmailCouponJob(
        string address,
        CouponCode code)
        Address = address;
        Code = code;

We also need to create a IJobId this is important later on

public class EmailJobId : Identity<EmailJobId>, IJobId
    public EmailJobId(string value) 
        : base(value)

The IJobId is the unique identifier for a particular scheduled job. Cancelling a scheduled job is only achievable if you have its jobId on hand.

Job Runners

Job runners are the actors which execute the jobs. Job runners receive the job messages from the job scheduler and executes them. The job runners typically have no concept of scheduling messages, as their one purpose is to handle the job messages. JobRunners would normally inherit from JobRunner<,> so that they can consume the IRun<> interface to signify what messages/jobs that the runner can handle.

A job runner might look like:

public class EmailCouponJobRunner : JobRunner<EmailCouponJob, EmailJobId>,
    public bool Run(EmailCouponJob job)
        SendCouponEmail(job.Address, job.Code);
        return true;

This JobRunner is pretty stateless, but jobs do not have to be stateless.

Job Schedulers

Scheduling is the method by which work is assigned to resources that complete the work. In Akkatecture, the job scheduler is the actor which decides when to trigger work to resources that can handle the work (the job runner).Under the hood, job schedulers are persistent actors which persist messages to a journal and then uses this journal as its primary source of state just like in any other event sourced system.

The job scheduler for the email coupon job can be described as follows

public class EmailCouponJobScheduler<EmailCouponJobScheduler, EmailCouponJob, EmailJobId>

The job scheduler polls itself to see if it should trigger the next job as defined in the frequency on on its configuration found here.

Job Managers

JobManagers are the glue between the scheduler and the runner. Job manager supervises the runner and the scheduler but also coordinates messages between them. The job manager is the entry point to the job system, all messages that come from outside the job manager would typically be messages to either schedule jobs or to cancel jobs.

Instantiating a job manager looks like this:

var jobManager = 
    Props.Create(() =>
        new JobManager<TestJobScheduler, TestJobRunner, TestJob, TestJobId>(
            () => new EmailCouponJobScheduler(),
            () => new EmailCouponJobRunner())

Scheduling Jobs

There are three ways to schedule jobs, ScheduleOnce, ScheduleRepeatedly, and ScheduleCron. All of the schedule methods allow you to specify when the trigger should start. In the case of ScheduleOnce this is the actual trigger time. ScheduleRepeatedly allows you to schedule a job to triger in the future and then to repeat itself every interval of time. ScheduleCron allows you to schedule a job to trigger in the future and then to repeat itself everytime the cron expression yields a positive trigger.

var jobId = EmailJobId.New;
var emailCouponJob = new EmailCouponJob("foo[email protected]", CouponCode.NewOneTimeCoupon);
var when = DateTime.UtcNow.AddDays(7);

//Scheduling a one time job for 1 week from now
var oneTimeJob = new Schedule<EmailCouponJob, EmailJobId>(jobId, emailCouponJob, when);

//Scheduling a repeated job for 1 week from now 
//and then every 2 weeks repeatedly from then on
var interval = TimeSpan.FromDays(14);
var repeatedJob = new ScheduleRepeatedly<EmailCouponJob, EmailJobId>(jobId, emailCouponJob, interval, when);

//Scheduling a cron job for 1 week from now
// and then the first of every month at midnight
var cronExpression = "0 0 1 * *"; // cron expression for every first day of the month at midnight
var cronJob = new ScheduleCron<EmailCouponJob, EmailJobId>(jobId, emailCouponJob, cronExpression, when);

If you look at the above schedule jobs, they all trigger 7 days from DateTime.UtcNow. The difference between the schedule types here is that the Schedule<,> job will finish after it has triggered for the first time. The ScheduleRepeatedly<,> job will not finish after it has been triggered for the first time, infact, it will be scheduled to be triggered indefinitely after every interval. In a similar way to the reapeated schedule, the ScheduleCron<,> job will be scheduled to trigger in the future and then will trigger indefinitely everytime the cron expression yields a "trigger next" time.

All jobs can be cancelled by sending a Cancel<,>(jobId) message to the job manager, with the correlating jobId.

var cancelJob = new Cancel<EmailCouponJob, EmailJobId>(jobId);

Cron Expressions

Akkatecture takes on a dependency from Hangfire's Cronos library. This means that most practical cron expressions are accepted. Take a lot at the libraries expression notation so that you may use them here as well.

Testing Jobs (And Time)

If you look at this blog post on how to test for time, you can see how one might want to test jobs. To set up your TestKit appropriately for this, one hase to make sure that you have configured your TestKit's configuration to use the TestScheduler. This scheduler allows you to manipulate time in your unit tests by using Advance(...) and AdvanceTo(...) methods.

Your job test might look like this where the BackupJob emits a BackupJobDone when it has finished its work.

public void EveryTwoWeeks_BackupJob_IsRun()
    var scheduler = (TestScheduler) Sys.Scheduler;
    var backupJob = new BackupJob();
    var start = DateTime.UtcNow.AddDays(14);
    var interval = TimeSpan.FromDays(14);
    var jobManager = /* Omitted for brevity */ 

    var scheduleRepeatedly = new ScheduleRepeatedly<BackupJob, BackupJobId>(

    scheduler.Advance(interval) //advance by 2 weeks
    scheduler.Advance(interval) //advance by 2 weeks

As you can see we can tell the TestKit to advance time to our bidding in order to test how the job scheduler and runner will react. More examples can be found in the unit test project of Akkatecture.

Jobs can be used for both domain and infrastructural needs. They can be used to defer a command to an aggregate root or to just trigger some infrastructural requirement.

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